Rare Earth Elements, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
Yttrium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
REE Facts | HREE Facts | LREE Facts | Rare Metal Resource
LREE : 57 Lanthanum | 58 Cerium | 59 Praseodymium | 60 Neodymium | 61 Promethium | 62 Samarium | 63 Europium | 64 Gadolinium
HREE : 65 Terbium | 66 Dysprosium | 67 Holmium | 68 Erbium | 69 Thulium | 70 Ytterbium | 71 Lutetium | 39 Yttrium
Yttrium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
Facts about the first impure oxide of the Rare Earths to be discovered, Yttrium
Tracy Weslosky, Editor, InvestorIntel
Source: REE Handbook

Yttrium, REE Collection, ProEdge Media Corp. Yttrium’s claim to fame is that it is the first rare earth to be discovered. Yttrium is a heavy rare earth element (HREE) with the symbol Y and the atomic number 39.

The applications for Yttrium in present day technologies are diverse, ranging from military to commercial use. Yttrium phosphors are used in energy efficient fluorescent lamps and bulbs. In jewelry, Yttria is used to simulate diamonds in the form of cubic zirconia gemstones. Fighter jet engines use Yttria-stabilized zirconia as a thermal barrier to withstand extreme heat. And Yttrium based lasers (Nd:YAG) are use in industrial, medical, graphic arts, as well as in defense applications for precision cutting, welding, etching, boring, ranging and targeting.

Named for the village of Ytterby, Sweeden, in 1787 Swedish Army Lieutenant Carl Axel Arrhenius collected an unusually heavy piece of black rock. The heavy black stone was eventually forwarded to the Finnish chemist, Johan Gadolin at the University of Abo, Finland, where in 1794 Johan Gadolin analyzed and discovered that this specimen of heavy stone contained approximately 38-percent of a new "earth" (“earths” are compounds of elements, usually oxides). In 1797, Anders G. Ekeberg of Uppsala confirmed the findings of Gadolin and thus the “discovery” of a new rare earth.

Yttrium is a silvery-metallic dark grey lustrous metal that is relatively stable in air. Finely divided yttrium metal is very unstable in air and turnings of the metal will ignite at temperatures above 400 °C. The metal is soft and ductile. It has a hexagonal close-packed structure, a density of 4.478 gm/cm3, a melting point of 1509 °C, and a boiling point of 2927 °C. Yttrium oxide, or yttria, occurs as a sesquioxide with the formula Y2O3. The oxide is a white powder with a specific gravity of 5.0 gm/cm3 and a formula weight of 225.81.

Large resources of yttrium in monazite and xenotime are available worldwide. It occurs in the Earth’s crust at an average concentration of 33 parts per million. Ontario; Manitoba; Saskatchewan; Northwest Territories and Quebec all have differing concentrations of yttrium and it occurs in a wide variety of geologic environments.

The main source of the world’s yttrium is the ion-adsorption lateritic clays in the southern provinces of China, primarily Fujian, Guangdong, and Jiangxi, with a lesser number of deposits in Guangxi and Hunan. These deposits are mined by leaching methods. (Hedrick, 2010) Some little known yttrium facts are that fascinating: Yttrium based lasers (Nd:YAG) are used to remove tattoos. When receiving injections, lasers made with yttrium are used to bore holes through needles, allowing them to be thinner and less painful. In the mouth, Yttria is found in crowns, bridges, and implants. And for something completely different, combining yttrium with barium, copper and oxygen creates a superconductor strong enough to levitate a train! (Special thanks, James Hedrick, www.REEHandbook.com).

Yttrium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
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Yttrium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
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